Ann Druyan about Carl Sagan: “I don’t think I’ll ever see Carl again. But I saw him. We saw each other. We found each other in the cosmos, and that was wonderful”

Ann Druyan on her life with the late Carl Sagan: she shares an intimate perspective on their love, life, and the acceptance of finality without the comfort of belief in an afterlife. Her words offer a profound insight into their shared journey, a testament to the depth of their connection found not in the hereafter, …

The Skeptic’s Guide: How to Identify Fake Science News [10 detailed tips]

In the age of information, the proliferation of fake science news has become an alarming issue. The lines between fact-based, peer-reviewed scientific discoveries and sensational, pseudoscientific claims are increasingly blurred. For the unwary, these faux narratives can lead to dangerous misinformation that undermines critical thinking and scientific integrity. While the internet has democratized access to …

10 Ways to Spot a Conspiracy Theory [With Examples]

Conspiracy theories have been a pervasive part of public discourse, increasingly so in the age of the internet. While they often masquerade as critical thinking or alternative viewpoints, conspiracy theories can be dangerous, fostering mistrust, division, and in extreme cases, inspiring real-world violence. Thus, it’s vital to develop the tools to distinguish between legitimate concerns …

Occam’s Razor explained: When you hear hoofbeats think horses, not zebras

Occam’s razor, a foundational principle in philosophy and science, postulates that when presented with multiple explanations for a phenomenon, the simplest one – requiring the fewest assumptions – is often the most likely to be correct. Named after the 14th-century Franciscan friar, William of Ockham, this heuristic tool champions simplicity and clarity over complexity. At …

Hitchens’s Razor: what can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence

In our daily discourse, it’s common to encounter bold claims made without a shred of evidence. These baseless assertions, while occasionally persuasive, rest on shaky ground. Hitchens’s Razor, a clear and concise principle, provides a response to such proclamations: “What can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence.” This adage serves as …

Sagan Standard: Extraordinary Claims Require Extraordinary Evidence

Carl Sagan once said, “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence”, which is now known as the “Sagan Standard”. This means that if someone says something really surprising or unusual, they should have strong proof to back it up. It’s like telling a big story-you need to show it’s true. This idea is important today because there’s …